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English

兩個句子的距離

dist(s1, s2) = dist(w1w2…wn, u1u2..um)

Π min(dist(w1, u1), dist(w1, exp(u1)), dist(u1, exp(w1)), dist(exp(w1), exp(u1)))

如何計算兩個詞彙之間的差距

詞彙 v1 解釋 e1
詞彙 v2 解釋 e2
similarity(v1, v2) = Max(similarity(v1, v2), similarity(e1, e2))

mother - female - people - animal - live - physical
mother - parent - people - animal - live - physical
mother = set(female) ∩ set(parent)
= feature(female) ∪ feature(parent)
= feature(female - people) + feature(parent - people) + feature(people)

何謂 synonym :

example : women , female

何謂 polysemy

example :
feature(bank - organization) = process, deposit, loan, save money
feature(bank - land) = beside the river
feature(land - area) = cover with rock

為何不用 a-b 的觀念來編一部字典呢?就沒有所謂同義字的問題了。

一個解釋可以被分解為一個 boolean expression,並用 and , or 來代替連接詞

and 代表 feature 的增加 feature(v1)∪feature(v2),set 的縮小 set(v1)∩set(v2)
or 代表 feature 的減少 feature(v1)∩feature(v2),set 的擴大 set(v1)∪set(v2)

範例

morning :
oxford — the early part of the day, esp. from sunrise to noon
(the day & the early part & from sunrise to noon)

longman — the first part of the day, from the time when the sun rises,
usually until the time when the midday meal is eaten.
(the day & the first part & from the time when the sun rise usually
until the time when the midday meal is eaten)
Mother
Oxford : a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has
given birth.

(a woman & in relation to ([a child | children] to whom she has given birth.)

Longman : a female parent¬¬
(female & parent)

"Money"
Oxford : a current medium of exchange in the form of coins and bank notes.
<= and 應該是 or 才對
(a current medium & of exchange & [in the form of coins | bank notes])

Longman : Pieces of metal made into coins, or paper notes with their value
printed on them, given and taken in buying and selling
([Pieces of metal made into coins | paper notes with their value printed on them] & given and taken in buying and selling)

"Advice"
Oxford : words given or offered as an opinion or recommendation about future action or behaviour
(words & [[given|offered] as an opinion
| recommendation about future [action| behaviour]]

Longman : opinion given by one person to another on how that other should behave or act.
(opinion & given by one person to another
& on how that other should [behave | act])

"Age"
Oxford : the length of time that a person or thing has existed or is likely to exist.
(the length of time & that a person or thing [has existed | is likely to exist.])

Longman : the period of time a person has lived or a thing has existed
(the period of time & [a person has lived | a thing has existed])

方法:把一個解釋分解成一推 constraint ,則兩個解釋 e1, e2 的相似性:
e1 = (c1,1 , c1,2 , …, c1,n ) , e2 = (c2,1 c2,2 , …, c2,m )

morning :
oxford — the early part of the day, esp. from sunrise to noon
([the early part] of [the day]), (from [sunrise] to [noon])
object = the day
constraint 1 = the early part
constraint 2 = from [sunrise] to [noon]

longman — the first part of the day, from the time when the sun rises,
usually until the time when the midday meal is eaten.

([the first part] of [the day], [from the time when the sun rises],
usually [until the time when the midday meal is eaten.]
object = the day
constraint 1 = the first part
constraint 2 = from [the time when the sun rise],
until [the time when the midday meal is eaten]

Mother
Oxford : a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has
given birth.

[a woman] in relation to [a child or children to whom she has given birth.]
object = a woman
constraint 1 = in relation to a child
constraint 2 = children to whom she has given birth

Longman : a female parent
Object = female parent
Constraint 1 : female
Constraint 2 : parent

"Money"
Oxford : a current medium of exchange in the form of coins and bank notes.
[a current medium] [of exchange] [in the form of coins and bank notes].
Object = a current medium
Constraint 1 : of exchange
Constraint 2 : in the form of coins and bank notes

Longman : Pieces of metal made into coins, or paper notes with their value
printed on them, given and taken in buying and selling
[Pieces of metal made into coins], or [paper notes with their value printed on them],
[given and taken in buying and selling]

"Advice"
Oxford : words given or offered as an opinion or recommendation about future action or behaviour
[words] [given or offered as an opinion] or [recommendation about future action or behaviour]
object = words
constraint 1 : given or offer as an opinion
constraint 2 : or recommendation about future action or behavor

Longman : opinion given by one person to another on how that other should behave or act.
[opinion] [given by one person to another] [on how that other should behave or act.]
object = opinion
constraint 1 : given by one person to another
constraint 2 : on how that other should behave or act

"Age"
Oxford : the length of time that a person or thing has existed or is likely to exist.
[the length of time] that [a person or thing has existed] [or is likely to exist.]
object = the length of time
constraint 1 : a person or thing has existed
constraint 2 : a person or thing is likely to exist

Longman : the period of time a person has lived or a thing has existed
[the period of time] [a person has lived] or [a thing has existed]
object = the period of time
constraint 1 : a person has lived
constraint 2 : a thing has existed
Yorik Wilks Et. Al. — Machine Tractable dictionary tool
用統計的方法來找出一個字的相關字:
1. 先統計每個字在字典的解釋中的出現次數 fx
2. 統計兩個字的在字典的解釋中同時出現的次數 fxy
3. cp(x,y) = fxy/fy = Pr(x|y)
4. dcp(x,y) = Pr(x|y) - Pr(x)
5. min(dcp(x,y), dcp(y,x)) - good
6. iou(x,y) = Pr(x and y| x or y) -
good
7. dex(x,y) = (fxy - fx * fy) / min(fx, fy) - fx * fy
8. sdd(x, y) = [fxy - (fx*fy)/N] / sqrt( [fx*fy*(N-fx)*(N-fy)]/[N*N*(N-1)] )

請選擇與下列解釋同義的解釋項

1. a metal blade used as a cutting tool with usu. one long sharp edge fixed rigidly
in a handle or hinged

(A). a thin flat narrow piece of material, esp. for fastening things together,
or for putting round something to strengthen it.

(B). a blade fixed in a handle used for cutting as a tool or weapon.

(C). a chopping-tool, usu. of iron with a steel edge and wooden handle.

2. a act or react

(A). an act of violence intended to harm

(B). to state or agree to the truth of

(C). to act; bear oneself

想法:以自然語言來查詢字典的詞彙

例如:在 The Wordsmyth English Dictionary-Thesaurus 中
下列指令可以找出上數字點中 robot 這個字的意義
http://machaut.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/WEDT_WN_terse.sh?word=robot

abandon
SYL: a-ban-don
PRO: E baen dEn
POS: transitive verb
INF: abandoned, abandoning, abandons
DEF: 1. to leave (something or someone) with no intention of returning.
SYN: forsake (1), desert2 (1)
SIM: leave1, drop, repudiate
DEF: 2. to give up by withdrawing from.
SYN: forsake (2)
SIM: give up {give}, withdraw, drop, relinquish, surrender
DEF: 3. to allow (oneself) to be taken over completely by emotions or impulses:
EXA: He abandoned himself to hysteria.
SYN: surrender (3)
POS: noun
DEF: 1. a state in which emotions or impulses control one completely.
SYN: surrender
DEF: 2. freedom from restraint or inhibition.
SYN: wantonness {wanton (adj 3)}, intemperance (2), spontaneity (1), freedom (2)
SIM: enthusiasm, élan, impetuosity

XWN: impetuosity1(1.00) [Experimental WordNet links]
DER: abandonment, n.


The Educational Dictionary

Method 1 : Use keyword match count as the score. (or weighted version)
用本字的解釋中每一個非 stop word 的字(w)與其他字的解釋 (e) 比對,
if w in e then score(e) ++
Method 2 : Use synonym match count as the score. (or weighted version)

Method 3 : Use semantic signature similarity as the score.
Method 4 : Use query graph to match the target query graph.
Method 5 : Use main keyword to match the other query.

Example :
Library —
A building or part of a building which contains books that may be borrowed
by the public (public library) or by members of a special group
object = "building"
descript = "contains book that may be borrowed"
Method 6 : 使用中文解釋來檢索英文
Method 7 : 用一個 middle layer 來映射解釋,例如:
Synonym 與 antonym 可以用來 match X and not X

範例:
morning O the early part of the day, esp. from sunrise to noon time, sunrise - noon
L the first part of the day, from the time when the sun rises, usually until the time when the midday meal is eaten time, sunrise - midday meal is eaten
M the earliest part of the day, beginning about sunrise and ending about noon. Time, sunrise - noon
Mother O a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has given birth Woman => give child birth
L a female parent Parent => female
M a female parent. Parent => female
Money O a current medium of exchange in the form of coins and bank notes. Coin bank notes
L Pieces of metal made into coins, or paper notes with their value printed on them, given and taken in buying and selling Coins, paper notes
M coins or paper notes issued by the government and marked with specific values; legal currency Cons , paper notes
Advice O words given or offered as an opinion or recommendation about future action or behavior. Words, opinion or recommendation
L opinion given by one person to another on how that other should behave or act Opinion
M remarks or an opinion offered as help in making a decision or in choosing a course of action; counsel Remarks or opinion
Age O a the length of time that a person or thing has existed or is likely to exist Length of time
L the period of time a person has lived or a thing has existed Period of time
M the length of time that a person or thing has existed. Length of time

a/an * —- headword is a *

Dictionary Pattern
Key Verb to Verb Strike : to hit
Key Noun {determiner}{adjective}*key Noun{adjective phrase}* Abandon :
The state when one's feeling and actions are uncontrolled

Abbey :
The group of people living in such a building
Function Noun {determiner}{adjective}*Function Noun of Key Noun {adjective phrase}
Function Noun :
Is-a : kind, type, …
Part-of : part, side, top, …
Membership : set, member, group,
class family
Action : act, way, action
State : state, condition
Amount : amount, sum, measure,…
Degree : degree, quality, …
Form : form, shape, …
{determiner}Function Noun {of} Noun Abbey :
The group of people living in such a building
Abbrevation :
The act of making shorter a shortened form of a word, often one used in writing.

Keyword

Entry A collection of one or more sense definition that ends at the next head , Head (word):A word, phrase or hyphenated word defined by an entry. Sense entry:The sense definition, example and other text associated with one sense of a head.
LDOCE Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (a dictionary that entries are defined using a "controlled" vocabulary of about 2000 words and that the entries have a simple and regular syntax.
Definition The explanation of a head word.
Sample sentence
Thesaurus Semantic network

Reference

  1. Yorik Wilks Et. Al.* Providing Machine Tractable Dictionary Tools — Semantics and the Lexicon — Edited by James Pustejovsky — KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLICHERS
  2. Jun-ichi NAKAMURA, Makoto NAGAO Extraction of Semantic Information from an Ordinary English Dictionary and its Evaluation

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