# Conceptual Dependency Inference Rule

• 1. LINGUISTIC-INFERENCE. // slot filling by the default assignment.
• A given word can be taken to mean that s specific but unmentioned object.
• Example
• A buy O from B <=> B sell O to A => money transferred.
• A drink quite a lot=> alcholic beverage implicit stated.
• John hit Mary => with hand in implicit.
• 2. ACT-INFERENCE :
• Present when an actor and an object occur in a conceptualization without an ACT to connect them, and the object in question has a normal function in the world. In this case the normal function is assumed to be the implicitly referenced ACT.
• Example
• John told Mary that he wants a book. (ACT-INFERENCE)=> in order to read it
• John likes chocolate (ACT-INFERENCE) => in order to eat it
• 3. TRANS-ENABLE-INFERENCE
• John told Mary that he wants a book. (ACT-INFERENCE)=> in order to read it (TRANS-ENABLE) => (f) John read the book.
• John likes chocolate (ACT-INFERENCE)=> in order to eat it (TRANS-ENABLE) => (f) John eat chocolate.
• 4. RESULT-INFERENCE
• Whenever a TRANS ACT is present and no information exists that would contradict the inferred result.
• Example
• John went to South Dakota. => John was in South Dakota (PTRANS)
• John told Mary that Bill was a doctor. => Mary knows that Bill was a doctor. (MTRANS)
• John gave Mary a book. => Mary takes the book. (ATRANS)
• 5. OBJECT-AFFECT-INFERENCE
• The physical action that has some affect on the object.
• Example
• John hit Mary with a rock. => Rock *PHYSCONT* Mary
• 6. BELIEF-PATTERN-INFERENCE
• The given event plus its inferred results fit a belief pattern that has reasons.
• Example
• John took an aspirin. (BELIEF) => John was sick.
• John flattered Mary (BELIEF) => John want Mary do something for him.
• 7. INSTRUMENTAL-INFERENCE
• Whenever an ACT has been referenced, its probable instrument can be inferred.
• INGEST (INSTRUMENTAL) => PTRANS
• PROPEL (INSTRUMENTAL) => MOVE, GRASP, PROPEL
• PTRANS (INSTRUMENTAL) => MOVE, PROPEL
• ATRANS (INSTRUMENTAL) => PTRANS, MTRANS, MOVE
• CONC (INSTRUMENTAL) => MTRANS
• MTRANS (INSTRUMENTAL) => MBUILD, SPEAK, ATTAND, MOVE
• MBUILD (INSTRUMENTAL) => MTRANS
• EXPEL (INSTRUMENTAL) => MOVE, PROPEL
• GRASP (INSTRUMENTAL) => MOVE
• SPEAK (INSTRUMENTAL) => MOVE
• ATTEND (INSTRUMENTAL) => no , MOVE is often applied.
• Example
• John is aware that Fred hit Mary => (aware, CONC) (INSTRUMENTAL) => MTRANS (John got this information (Fred hit Mary) ) => ATTEND eye on it or ATTEND ear on it.
• John receive the ball. => ATRANS (INSTRUMENTAL) => PTRANS, PROPEL
• 8. PROPERTY-INFERENCE
• Whenever an object is intruduced in a sentence, certain subpropositions are being made.
• Example
• John hit Mary (PROPERTY) => John and Mary exist, John has hand.
• 9. SEQUENTIAL-INFERENCE
• One sentence follows another and they share a subject or a proposition.
• Example
• All redheads are obnoxious. & Queen Elizabeth I has red hair. => Queen Elizabeth I is obnoxious.
• 10. CAUSALITY-INFERENCE
• Two sentences are connected by an “and” or by their appearing in sequence.
• Example
• John hit Mary and she died.
• 11. BACKWARD-INFERENCE
• An action has occurred that required another action to precede.
• Example
• John ate a banana. => Banana must have been PTRANSed to him at some time.
• John knows where Mary is => this information mujst have been MTRANSed to John at some time.
• 12. INTENTION-INFERENCE
• We assume that a person do something because he want do to it, achieve something.
• Example
• John hit Mary (INTENTION, AFFECT) => Mary is hurt pleases John.
• John told Bill that he wants to go to New York. (INTENTION, RESULT) => being locate in New York will please John., Bill know that.

# An integrate example

John hit Mary
(LINGUISTIC) => add “hand” as object of PROPEL
(OBJECT AFFECT) => add causal “receipient (Mary) be hurt”.
(BELIEF PATTERN) => add potential cause of the entire event as Mary DO cause John be hurt cause John be angry.
(INSTRUMENTAL) => add instrument of MOVE “hand”.
(PROPERTY) => add predication that John and Mary exist and that John has hand and that
they were in ther same place at the same time.
(INTENTION) => add that John knwe that it would cause him pleasure if Mary was hurt and that is why he did it.

Four kinds of causal links ,

1. ↑ : causal
2. Result (r) : forward causal rules for physical ACTs.
3. Enable (E): backward causal rules for physical ACTs.
4. Disable (d) : disable
5. Initiate (I): forward causal rules for mental ACTs.
6. Reason (R) : backward causal rules for mental ACTs.
7. <=> dependency